Search results “Oracle local global indexes”
Local Vs Global Partitioned Index in Oracle 11g
The Video Explains the difference between Local Partitioned Indexes(Prefixed vs Non Prefixed Indexes). and Global Partitioned Index along with the challenges in maintaining Global partitioned Indexes when the underlying tables partitioned is dropped/truncated/Merged/Moved. Local Partitioned Index Shares the same boundaries as the table and are in the same number as table partitions they are widely used in DSS and DWH systems. While Global Partitioned Index are predominantly used in OLTP systems
Views: 9600 Tech Coach
Stop Rebuilding Global Indexes! Oracle 12c Global Index Maintenance
Stop rebuilding Global Indexes! Stop worrying about invalidating Global Indexes! Oracle 11g gave us "UPDATE GLOBAL INDEXES". 12c provides a huge improvement: orphaned_entries! In this tutorial, Oracle Certified Master John Watson demonstrates how 11g and 12c handle Global Index maintenance with orphaned entries and overnight maintenance job PMO_DEFERRED_GIDX_MAINT_JOB.
Views: 2759 SkillBuilders
Global Index rebuild scenario in Oracle Database 11g
Why and How we need to rebuild global Index in Oracle 11g
Views: 3815 Athar Fahad
Oracle Tutorial || online training||Adv Sql | Indexes Part - 1 by basha
DURGASOFT is INDIA's No.1 Software Training Center offers online training on various technologies like JAVA, .NET , ANDROID,HADOOP,TESTING TOOLS ,ADF,INFORMATICA,TABLEAU,IPHONE,OBIEE,ANJULAR JS, SAP... courses from Hyderabad & Bangalore -India with Real Time Experts. Mail us your requirements to [email protected] so that our Supporting Team will arrange Demo Sessions. Ph:Call +91-8885252627,+91-7207212428,+91-7207212427,+91-8096969696. http://durgasoft.com http://durgasoftonlinetraining.com https://www.facebook.com/durgasoftware http://durgajobs.com https://www.facebook.com/durgajobsinfo......
Types of Indexes (A B-tree index,A bitmap index )
Hi guys today is very most important topic in oracle is INDEXES help to increase performance at the time of search and modification into table records. #TypesofIndexes #B-treeindex#bitmapindex
Views: 30777 Oracle World
Oracle Performance Tips - Indexes
Learn about index and types of indexes.
Views: 2508 Saurabh Kumar
SQL 12c Tutorial 20 : SQL 12c Creating Multiple Indexes on column
SQL 12c Tutorial 20 : SQL 12c Creating Multiple Indexes on column SQL 12c New Features SQL 12c Tutorial for beginners Oracle 12c Tutorial for beginners Creating Multiple indexes on column
Views: 1183 TechLake
Indexes in Oracle :Index Scan Methods :Part 2
The Video Explains when should you create indexes. The difference between Simple and composite Index, Relevance of order in composite indexes and Index Scan Methods in detail. 1.Index Unique scan 2.Index Range Scan 3. Index Skip Scan 4. Fast full Index Scan 5. Full Index Scan If you have any questions just drop in a comment
Views: 10511 Tech Coach
index partioning in oracle
Views: 463 oracle dba tutorial
Indexing in Oracle :B-Tree,Bitmap Indexing
This Video is the 1st tutorial in the video series Indexing in Oracle , The video series explains in detail, What are indexes?It's types, what index should be used in which scenario and other important thing in basic terminology. Note :You may want to watch the video with a higher playback speed(1.25 if it suits you more)
Views: 23905 Tech Coach
Intuition Behind Oracle Index
How index helps in performance For Full Course Experience Please Go To http://mentorsnet.org/course_preview?course_id=6 Full Course Experience Includes 1. Access to course videos and exercises 2. View & manage your progress/pace 3. In-class projects and code reviews 4. Personal guidance from your Mentors
Views: 14121 Oresoft LWC
Optimizer Statistics
Optimizer Statistics watch more videos at https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture By: Mr. Parth Panjab, Tutorials Point India Private Limited
What is a Hash Partition in Oracle
What is a Hash Partition in Oracle SQL Tutorial SQL Tutorial for beginners PLSQL Tutorial PLSQL Tutorial for beginners PL/SQL Tutorial PL SQL Tutorial PL SQL Tutorial for beginners PL/SQL Tutorial for beginners Oracle SQL Tutorial
Views: 1504 TechLake
Oracle Interview Question - oracle index related questions - BTREE index in oracle
Oracle Interview Question - oracle index related questions 1. What is Index? How to create index? 2. What are the types of index? 3. How to find the list of indexes for a given table? 4. Explain B-tree index 5. Explain Bitmap index 6. Explain "Function based" index 7. Explain "Reverse Key" index 8. When to choose what type of index? 9. How to know index is being used? 10. How to monitor index usage? 11. What are the advantages/drawbacks of indes? List of all the SQL and PLSQL interview questions @ https://easy-learning-tech.blogspot.com/p/oracle-sql-plsql-interview-questions.html
Views: 2545 Siva Academy
ADS1: Hash tables for indexing
We discuss how a hash table can hold a k-mer index, as well as how to query it. Course page: https://www.coursera.org/course/ads1.
Views: 5900 Ben Langmead
Oracle || Oracle Index by  Siva
DURGASOFT is INDIA's No.1 Software Training Center offers online training on various technologies like JAVA, .NET , ANDROID,HADOOP,TESTING TOOLS , ADF, INFORMATICA,TABLEAU,IPHONE,OBIEE,ANJULAR JS, SAP... courses from Hyderabad & Bangalore -India with Real Time Experts. Mail us your requirements to [email protected] so that our Supporting Team will arrange Demo Sessions. Ph:Call +91-8885252627,+91-7207212428,+91-7207212427,+91-8096969696. http://durgasoft.com http://durgasoftonlinetraining.com https://www.facebook.com/durgasoftware http://durgajobs.com https://www.facebook.com/durgajobsinfo............
Oracle Database 12c: Partitioning Improvements with Tom Kyte
Tom Kyte introduces the new partitioning improvements in Oracle Database 12c, followed by a demo of global index maintenance. For more information: "Asynchronous Global Index Maintenance for Dropping and Truncating Partitions" http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=db121&id=VLDBG14107 "Changes for Very Large Databases and Partitioning in Oracle Database 12c Release 1" http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=db121&id=VLDBG14100 "ALTER INDEX COALESCE Clause" http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=db121&id=SQLRF52782 "DBMS_PART.CLEANUP_GIDX Procedure" http://www.oracle.com/pls/topic/lookup?ctx=db121&id=ARPLS74409
Views: 14319 OracleDBVision
Partitioning in Oracle Explained with Real project Examples : Introduction
This Video series will explain partitioning and its use cases referencing real project examples from different domain. It will explain what when and why of partitioning in a simple but elaborate manner. This is the 1st video which explains why partitioning is required and what are the advantages we gain from it. The following videos will explain when should we do it and how. Part 1 : Partitioning in Oracle : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3q4lrE671Y&list=PLUWdEQb_2yqX9rJ9CtahlZvo0AD3A63JA&index=1 Part 2 : Partitioning in Oracle - Performance Basics :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OQ8LXbxLI5g&list=PLUWdEQb_2yqX9rJ9CtahlZvo0AD3A63JA&index=2 Part 3 : List Partitioning in Oracle : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w6kB-90pFa4&list=PLUWdEQb_2yqX9rJ9CtahlZvo0AD3A63JA&index=3 Part 4 : Range partitioning in Oracle : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VBkpI4Ki49Q&list=PLUWdEQb_2yqX9rJ9CtahlZvo0AD3A63JA&index=4 Part 5 : Hash Partitioning in Oracle : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2YxOF_sJMLI&list=PLUWdEQb_2yqX9rJ9CtahlZvo0AD3A63JA&index=5 Part 6 : Composite Partitioning in Oracle :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q_e9IkNtSWc&list=PLUWdEQb_2yqX9rJ9CtahlZvo0AD3A63JA&index=6 Part 7 : Reference Partitioning in Oracle :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p8gNwr6Rtdo&list=PLUWdEQb_2yqX9rJ9CtahlZvo0AD3A63JA&index=7 Part 8 : Local Vs Global Partitioned Index in Oracle 11g : https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t77fyUt8XPw&list=PLUWdEQb_2yqX9rJ9CtahlZvo0AD3A63JA&index=8 Part 9 : Partitioning enhancement in 12 c :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o_WjapdXiQg&list=PLUWdEQb_2yqX9rJ9CtahlZvo0AD3A63JA&index=9
Views: 35447 Tech Coach
Indexing JSON Data in Oracle Database 12c
This video gives an overview of indexing JSON data in Oracle database 12c. For more information see: https://oracle-base.com/articles/12c/indexing-json-data-in-oracle-database-12cr1 Website: https://oracle-base.com Blog: https://oracle-base.com/blog Twitter: https://twitter.com/oraclebase Cameo by Bertrand Drouvot : Blog: https://bdrouvot.wordpress.com/ Twitter : https://twitter.com/BertrandDrouvot Cameo appearances are for fun, not an endorsement of the content of this video. All trademarks, product names and logos are the property of their respective owners.
Views: 1978 ORACLE-BASE.com
Index Organized Tables and Examples
Index Organized Tables and Examples watch more videos at https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture By: Mr. Parth Panjab, Tutorials Point India Private Limited
BitMap Indexes & Examples
BitMap Indexes & Examples watch more videos at https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture By: Mr. Parth Panjab, Tutorials Point India Private Limited
Partitioning in Oracle - Performance Basics
This is the 2nd video from " Partitioning in Oracle " series, It explains how oracle stores and manages data. What is single Block IO and Multi Block IO ? Why full table scan is better than index access in few cases. The video is very elaborate, I have tried my level best to keep it as simple as possible
Views: 13908 Tech Coach
Partitioning Enhancements in oracle 12c
Oracle has made 4 significant enhancements in 12c. 1.Mixing Interval and Reference partitioning 2.DDL operations on multiple partitions 3.Global Index maintenance 4.Cascade Operations from parent to child, Truncate and drop This video explains the enhancements in detail with practical examples
Views: 2445 Tech Coach
Reverse Key Index :Types of Btree Index in Oracle
Please subscribe to my new channel. https://www.youtube.com/c/AnIndianAbroadd The Videos explains how Reverse Btree Index works and in what condition they shall be used. Reverse Btree index are used to solve index block contention. You can't perform range scans in reverse btree Index.
Views: 3181 Tech Coach
08 09 Demo   Invisible Indexes
Views: 210 oracle ocm
Oracle - Global is Local
Views: 94 IFBTA
Oracle 11g Hints Overview
In this Video tutorial we will discuss about Optimizer hints in Oracle. What is optimizer hint, when & why its needed. Different Category of hints. Description of mostly used hints. Demonstrate how query plan can change with the influence of hint.
Views: 54741 Anindya Das
exchange Partition , Move partition in oracle
exchange Partition , Move partition in oracle Possible operations with partitions SQL Tutorial SQL Tutorial for beginners PLSQL Tutorial PLSQL Tutorial for beginners PL/SQL Tutorial PL SQL Tutorial PL SQL Tutorial for beginners PL/SQL Tutorial for beginners Oracle SQL Tutorial Add Drop Rename Split Move ( Moving from Tablespace to tablespace) Exchange (Table to Table(non Partitioned table)) not partitioned only exchanging data (p)
Views: 1939 TechLake
01 Overview of table Partition in oracle
Partitioning enhances the performance, manageability, and availability of a wide variety of applications and helps reduce the total cost of ownership for storing large amounts of data. Partitioning allows tables, indexes, and index-organized tables to be subdivided into smaller pieces, enabling these database objects to be managed and accessed at a finer level of granularity. Oracle provides a rich variety of partitioning strategies and extensions to address every business requirement. Moreover, since it is entirely transparent, partitioning can be applied to almost any application without the need for potentially expensive and time consuming application changes. Partitioning allows a table, index, or index-organized table to be subdivided into smaller pieces, where each piece of such a database object is called a partition. Each partition has its own name, and may optionally have its own storage characteristics. From the perspective of a database administrator, a partitioned object has multiple pieces that can be managed either collectively or individually. This gives the administrator considerable flexibility in managing partitioned objects. However, from the perspective of the application, a partitioned table is identical to a non-partitioned table; no modifications are necessary when accessing a partitioned table using SQL queries and DML statements. Partitioning Key ======================== Each row in a partitioned table is unambiguously assigned to a single partition. The partitioning key is comprised of one or more columns that determine the partition where each row will be stored. Oracle automatically directs insert, update, and delete operations to the appropriate partition through the use of the partitioning key. When to Partition a Table ========================== Here are some suggestions for when to partition a table: Tables greater than 2 GB should always be considered as candidates for partitioning. Tables containing historical data, in which new data is added into the newest partition. A typical example is a historical table where only the current month's data is updatable and the other 11 months are read only. When the contents of a table need to be distributed across different types of storage devices. When to Partition an Index ============================= Here are some suggestions for when to consider partitioning an index: Avoid rebuilding the entire index when data is removed. Perform maintenance on parts of the data without invalidating the entire index. Reduce the impact of index skew caused by an index on a column with a monotonically increasing value. Partitioned Index-Organized Tables =================================== Partitioned index-organized tables are very useful for providing improved performance, manageability, and availability for index-organized tables. For partitioning an index-organized table: ============================================ Partition columns must be a subset of the primary key columns Secondary indexes can be partitioned (both locally and globally) OVERFLOW data segments are always equi-partitioned with the table partitions See Also: Oracle Database Concepts for more information about index-organized tables System Partitioning System partitioning enables application-controlled partitioning without having the database controlling the data placement. The database simply provides the ability to break down a table into partitions without knowing what the individual partitions are going to be used for. All aspects of partitioning have to be controlled by the application. For example, an insertion into a system partitioned table without the explicit specification of a partition will fail. System partitioning provides the well-known benefits of partitioning (scalability, availability, and manageability), but the partitioning and actual data placement are controlled by the application. See Also: Oracle Database Data Cartridge Developer's Guide for more information about system partitioning Partitioning for Information Lifecycle Management Information Lifecycle Management (ILM) is concerned with managing data during its lifetime. Partitioning plays a key role in ILM because it enables groups of data (that is, partitions) to be distributed across different types of storage devices and managed individually.
Views: 7592 Md Arshad
07 06 Index Skip Scan Operations
Views: 994 oracle ocm
Oracle Partitioning
Oracle Partitioning watch more videos at https://www.tutorialspoint.com/videotutorials/index.htm Lecture By: Mr. Parth Panjab, Tutorials Point India Private Limited
The video explains BITMAP and BITMAP JOIN INDEX IN ORACLE and when you should create them on a column. BITMAP INDEXES should be dealt with carefully as they can lead to serious performance issues if the table is updated by multiple processes in parallel. Indexing Basics :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0X9bbtwTnuE&t=1095s Star and snowflake Schema :https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qq4yhhAk9fc&t=17s
Views: 6977 Tech Coach
Oracle Indexes  -  Btree vs Bitmap  Indexes -Excerpt from Oracle SQL Tuning training
http://www.dbvidya.com/course/sql-tuning-advanced/ [email protected] +91 991 2323 000 Oracle Performance Tuning Online Training : http://www.dbvidya.com/course/performance-tuning-for-dba/ Oracle SQL Performance Tuning Training Online : http://www.dbvidya.com/course/sql-tuning-advanced/ Oracle Performance Tuning Videos Tutorial for DBA and Developers : http://www.dbvidya.com/oracle-performance-tuning-videos/ Oracle AWR Tutorial: http://www.dbvidya.com/course/oracle-awr/ Erwin Tool Online Training : http://www.dbvidya.com/course/erwin-tool/ ER Data Modeling Course : http://www.dbvidya.com/course/er-modeling/ Dimensional Modeling Training Online : http://www.dbvidya.com/course/dimensional-modeling/ Oracle Database Blogs : http://www.dbvidya.com/blog/
Views: 1234 DbVidya
Using Global Hash Partitioned Indexes | Connor McDonald
Developer advocate Connor McDonald explains when and how to use global hash partitioned indexes in this 2 Minute Tech Tip. https://developer.oracle.com/ https://cloud.oracle.com/en_US/tryit
Views: 138 Oracle Developers
Index Range Scan
Index Range Scan
Views: 125 TUTOR SC
How to reduce Buffer Busy Waits using Hash Partitioned Indexes
The clip explains how Buffer Busy Waits are being caused and how they can be reduced with Hash Partitioned Indexes. A text version is here: https://uhesse.com/2016/12/02/how-to-reduce-buffer-busy-waits-with-hash-partitioned-indexes-in-oracle/
How to Move Object from one Table Space to Another Table Space? | How to Rebuild the Index ?
This Video will teach you How to Move Object one Table Space to Another | How to Rebuild the Index ? move table from one tablespace to another in oracle 11g oracle move schema to another tablespace oracle how to move objects to another tablespace oracle 11g move schema to another tablespace alter table move tablespace oracle 8i oracle move table script oracle move cluster to new tablespace oracle move table example rebuild index oracle script alter index rebuild online parallel oracle rebuild all indexes oracle index rebuild online vs offline oracle rebuild partitioned index index rebuild oracle best practice index rebuild script in oracle 11g
Views: 1265 Oracle PL/SQL World
Oracle Query Optimization. Partitioned Tables and Indexes
In this lesson, an introduction about Oracle Query Optimization. Partitioned Tables and Indexes. How to see plan of query. Monitoring plan of queries. SQL Plan
Views: 75 Mkrtich Pudeyan
What is the differences between Temporary Table and Global Temporary Table In MSSQL Server
In this video you will find difference between Temporary table and global temporary table.The scope of temporary table is only up-to current windows connection once you you will closed that then it automatically has been deleted by MSSQL server.So let's see the main difference between here. Temporary Table: 1) table name must start with # prefix of table name. 2) Scope of this table up-to current session window. 3) Multiple user can create same name temporary table. 4)you can't access temporary table outside scope. Global Temporary Table: 1) table name must start with ## prefix of table name. 2) Scope of this table up-to current MSSQL server opened window. 3)Global table can only be unique name.Multiple use can't create same name global tables. 4) you can access Global temporary table outside scope. Hope you like this video.If you like then subscribe my channel.Thanks for watching. You can Follow me on Twitter, Facebook,LinkedIn, Instagram https://twitter.com/ErAmarsingh1991 https://www.facebook.com/TechVideosByAmarSingh https://www.linkedin.com/in/amar-singh-67313277/ https://www.instagram.com/er.amarsingh1991/
This video demonstrates the usage and working of GTT in oracle SQL. The video shows how internally oracle works with GTT, and also explains the working of ON COMMIT DELETE ROWS and ON COMMIT PRESERVER ROWS in oracle with easy examples.
Views: 11190 Kishan Mashru
Oracle Optimization course, PL/SQL Tutorial - Table Partitions (Lesson 3)
Oracle optimization: create table partitions and Index-Organized Table. Other lessons, visit https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RlxvHMg9PI&list=PL99-DcFspRUoscBHdh39T8EHENfm2VcQ3
What is the RANGE-HASH SUBPARTITIONS in Oracle ?
Hi guys in my today scenario I'm going to explain with you What is the RANGE-HASH SUB-PARTITIONS in Oracle,Oracle database #RANGE-HASHSUBPARTITIONS Unbeatable,Unbreakable Platform..
Views: 1447 Oracle World
Temporary Table in Oracle  |GlobalTemporary Table in Sql|Advantages of Global Temporary Table in Sql
Temporary Table in Oracle | Global Temporary Table in Sql| Advantages of Global Temporary Table in Sql --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- use of global temporary table in oracle,advantages of global temporary table in oracle,local temporary table in oracle,how to use global temporary table in oracle procedure,create global temporary table in oracle,temporary, table, tables, global, oracle, sql, delete, create global temporary table, temporary tables, oracle sql, global temporary table in oracle, preserve, on commit, drop global temporary table, oracle pl/sql, global temporary table, sql insert data into temp table, difference between temporary table and global temporary table in oracle,limitations of global temporary table in oracle,oracle create temp table on the fly, sql tutorials for beginners, sql expert, sql expert tutorials, database, oracle, table, online training,insert into oracle,oracle insert into multiple rows,create table oracle,oracle 12c alter table add identity column,oracle create table default value sysdate,collections in oracle pl sql with examples,Oracle 12c, database, oracle database (software), sql, sql developer, sql tutorials, how to create database using dbca, how to create database in oracle,oracle cloud, database 12c, dba genesis,database services, database, create, 11g, dba, db, beginner, Please Subscribe My Channel
Oracle Database 12c OLTP Compression
This short video uses swingbench to demonstrate that its possible to make excellent space savings of both the space needed to store rows and the associated indexes without compromising transaction performance. You can find out more information on Oracle Database compression in this white paper http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/database/options/compression/advanced-compression-wp-12c-1896128.pdf You can download the software used in this demonstration here http://www.dominicgiles.com/swingbench.html
Views: 738 Dominic Giles
Hash Partitioning in Oracle
The Video explains Hash partitioning in oracle and how it focuses on equal data distribution. It explains how hash partitioning uses partition joins to improve performance in VLDB by MPP.
Views: 8318 Tech Coach
skip_unusable_indexes is NOT skipping unusable indexes!
blog: connor-mcdonald.com Highlights from the April DBA Office Hours session. Office Hours is 100% free Q&A sessions held every month by Oracle experts to help you succeed with the Oracle suite of technologies. Music: Smells Like Summer - Del (Vlog Music No Copyrighted) Video Link: https://youtu.be/IrkMsqcOjGU
Views: 338 Connor McDonald
PL/SQL tutorial 57: PL/SQL Collection Associative Array in Oracle Database
Manish Sharma from RebellionRider presents you the latest PL/SQL tutorial on Collection ASSOCIATIVE ARRAY. In this video, you will learn – - What are Associative Arrays? - How to create Associative Arrays? - How to Insert & Update the data of Associative Array and - How to retrieve the data from an Associative array using two different ways? So if you are wondering whether associative array is a persistent form of collection or not; Is it bounded or unbounded in nature; why should we use this specific collection over others such as VARRAY or Nested Table; What are the differences or similarities between associative array and other collections? Then go ahead and watch the video to find out the answers to all these questions. Hope you will enjoy watching. Do make sure to Like and Share this post/video because that will help others in learning as well as help me and my channel in reaching out. This way we can educate more and more people for FREE. Most importantly SUBSCRIBE to the channel as many such interesting tutorials are coming your way. Thanks. ------------------------------------------------------------------------ ►►►LINKS◄◄◄ Blog: http://bit.ly/associative-array Previous Tutorial ►While Loop: https://youtu.be/IIlc4Sr7kFE ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►Make sure you SUBSCRIBE and be the 1st one to see my videos! ------------------------------------------------------------------------- ►►►Find me on Social Media◄◄◄ Follow What I am up to as it happens on https://twitter.com/rebellionrider http://instagram.com/rebellionrider https://plus.google.com/+Rebellionrider http://in.linkedin.com/in/mannbhardwaj/ ___Facebook Official Page of Manish Sharma___ https://www.facebook.com/TheRebellionRider/ ___Facebook Official Page of RebellionRider.com___ https://www.facebook.com/RebellionRider.official/ You can also Email me at for E-mail address please check the About section Please please LIKE and SHARE my videos it makes me happy. Thanks for liking, commenting, sharing and watching more of our videos This is Manish from RebellionRider.com ♥ I LOVE ALL MY VIEWERS AND SUBSCRIBERS
Views: 15683 Manish Sharma
【VDEDU】Unusable indexes use
Unusable indexes in Oracle, DML statements are not use the index to its maintenance, at the same time the optimizer will not use the index. Unusable indexes no segment exists. Unavailable index index becomes available methods are: 1. Place the index can not be truncate operation corresponding table; 2.rebuild index; In addition, the query optimizer can use conversion method expand table so that the SQL statement has encountered unusable index partition table to generate better execution plans.
Views: 68 崔旭
Secretwars #0243 - Markets Review: A global index survey.
Mostly breakdowns, confirmed or about to. Survival mode. $efa $eem $nya $spx $ndx
Views: 37 Patrick Karim