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UN Peacekeeping Operations - Press Conference (24 January 2018)
 
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Press conference by Mr. Jean-Pierre Lacroix, UN Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, on the report entitled "Improving Security of United Nations Peacekeepers" and the future of peacekeeping. Story: Presenting The Cruz Report” – a comprehensive review on how to reduce casualties amongst peacekeepers serving in the United Nations (UN) missions across the globe, the UN peacekeeping chief Jean-Pierre Lacroix told media in New York the report is “a very, very candid assessment of what the problems are and we should do in order to reduce a number of fatalities in peacekeeping.” in November 2017, UN Secretary-General António Guterres appointed Lieutenant General Carlos Alberto dos Santos Cruz of Brazil to lead a high-level review to identify why the UN has had so many casualties caused by acts of violence in recent years, and what should be done to reduce these casualties. The review team visited UN peacekeeping operations in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), the Central African Republic (CAR), Mali and South Sudan, accessed relevant internal UN data and conducted 160 interviews to inform their work. The report does not address the issue of mandates, but instead confines its conclusions to operational issues in missions in those countries. The report, which was submitted to the Secretary-General, states that with the influx of armed groups, extremists, organized crime, and other criminal elements and threats, the blue helmet and UN flag no longer offer ‘natural’ protection to peacekeepers. The review team identified four broad areas where the UN and Member States must take actions to reduce fatalities. These include (1) changing mindsets so that personnel are aware of the risks and empowered to take the initiative to deter, prevent, and respond to attacks; (2) improving capacities so that the mission and personnel are equipped and trained to operate in high-threat environments; (3) achieving a “threat sensitive mission footprint” that is aligned with mission mandates and limits the exposure of the mission to threat; and (4) enhancing accountability to ensure that those able to take actions to prevent fatalities and injuries live up to their responsibilities. The UN Departments of Peacekeeping Operations and of Field Support have developed an action plan to implement the report’s recommendations, according to a note to correspondents issued by the Office of the Spokesperson for the UN Secretary-General. Lacroix told reporters in New York “The Cruz report and the action plan that we will implement, they are about the reducing fatalities in peacekeeping but they touch most issues that are relevant to performance. They address issues such as are we implementing our own rules even down to the basic levels – are we playing by our own book.” The plan focuses on three main areas – operational behaviour and mindset; capacity building and readiness; and support issues – and includes immediate Headquarters and field-level actions. The Departments have also established an implementation support team led by two senior officials, which will coordinate and monitor implementation of these measures at Headquarters and provide support to field missions. The report was released on Monday to UN Member States at a session of the Special Committee on Peacekeeping Operations by Jean-Pierre Lacroix, the Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, who will brief the press about the report on Wednesday. General Santos Cruz previously served as Force Commander, of the UN Organization Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO) from 2013 to 2015 and of the UN Stabilization Mission in Haiti (MINUSTAH) from 2007 to 2009. Two other authors are William R. Phillips, a retired United States Army Colonel, and former Mission Chief of Staff of the UN Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA), and Salvator Cusimano, the Special Assistant to the Director, Africa II Division of the Office of Operations in the United Nations Department of Peacekeeping Operations. Since 1948, more than 3,500 personnel have lost their lives serving in UN peace operations with 943 due to acts of violence. Since 2013, casualties have spiked, with 195 deaths in violent attacks, more than during any other 5-year period in history. Improving Security of United Nations Peacekeepers (Independent Report): http://bit.ly/2G6XKkS Summary of the Action Plan to Implement the Report on Improving Security of UN Peacekeepers: http://bit.ly/2G5DTCE
Views: 3728 United Nations
Is The Future Of Peacekeeping Peaceful? | Shannon Zimmerman | TEDxUQ
 
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The United Nations is an embodiment of a continually evolving international order and UN peace operations are the physical manifestation of that order. Though there is no international consensus as to what peace and security mean, the prevailing understanding of these ideas is modeled by what peace operations do and how they do it. So what do current peace operations tell us about how the world understands peace and security? Has the recent global focus on terrorism changed what we think peace and security really means? Shannon Zimmerman is a peacemaker specializing in understanding how ideas of peace and security interact. She is currently a PhD researcher at the Asia Pacific Centre for the Responsibility to Protect based at the University of Queensland in Brisbane, Australia. Her research focuses on the intersections of the Protection of Civilians (PoC) and counter-terrorism norms within United Nations peacekeeping missions. She specifically looks at how these norms interact with each other at the field level and their impact on the structure and nature of contemporary peacekeeping missions. Shannon holds a Masters in Conflict Resolution from Georgetown University in Washington D.C. Previously, Shannon worked at the United States Institute of Peace and the North American branch of the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute. This talk was given at a TEDx event using the TED conference format but independently organized by a local community. Learn more at http://ted.com/tedx
Views: 18011 TEDx Talks
Plug and Play: Multinational Rotation Contributions for UN Peacekeeping Operations
 
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On May 19th, IPI together with the Norwegian Institute for International Affairs (NUPI) cohosted a policy forum event to launch the report “Plug and Play: Multinational Rotation Contributions for UN Peacekeeping Operations,” which was recently published by NUPI and IPI with funding from the Royal Norwegian Ministry of Defence.
Law. Order. Peace: UN Peacekeeping and Rule of Law
 
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Rule of law assistance is an essential tool that the United Nations relies upon to help maintain peace and security around the world. This film explains the work of UN Peacekeeping in this area, specifically that of Judicial Affairs Officers, Corrections Officers and Police Officers in our current peace operations.
Views: 18106 United Nations
UN Peacekeeping animation - Security and rule of law in the field
 
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United Nations, New York, August 2011 - The Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions, within UN Department of Peackeeping Operations, address security and rule of law issues in post-conflict environments. This 2 minute animation explains their work. You can find out more here: http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/issues/ruleoflaw/
Views: 43606 United Nations
Peacekeeping Missions: How to Measure Success (and Failure)?
 
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How does one measure ‘success’ in UN peacekeeping missions? What is meant by a mission which is only partially successful, or in some part a failure? Professor Sarah-Myriam Martin-Brûlé gives a talk on these issues, based on her most recent book. To answer these questions, it is essential to look at two dimensions of success: the establishment of order and the accomplishment of mandate. Using the cases of UN peace operations in Somalia, Sierra Leone and Liberia, this study rejects the classification of these missions as the ‘worst’ context for ‘transitional politics’, and instead demonstrates that peace operations may succeed, partially or totally, in challenging contexts, Diverse outcomes of UNPKO are better explained by the type of intervener and the strategy employed than by the type of context. Professor Martin-Brûlé's research demonstrates that for a peace operation in a civil conflict, the adoption of a deterrence strategy works best for re-establishing order, while the involvement of a great power often improves the chances of a peacekeeping mandate being fulfilled. More info and sign-up: http://www.nupi.no/en/Events/2016/Peacekeeping-Missions-How-to-Measure-Success-and-Failure Photo: UN Photo
China's Grows Contribution to UN Peacekeeping Operations
 
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As the United Nations finds its peacekeeping missions stretched around the world, one major power is making a difference. China, a country that once criticized UN peacekeeping operations as interference with national sovereignty, is now a major troop contributor. Close to 2,200 Chinese are now wearing the characteristic blue helmets of U.N. peacekeepers. Nathan King reports from the United Nations in New York.
Views: 1245 VOA News
New Challenges for International Peacekeeping Operations
 
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U.S. Permanent Representative to the United Nations Susan E. Rice testifies before the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Foreign Affairs on the topic of "New Challenges for International Peacekeeping Operations" in Washington, DC July 29, 2009. Go to http://www.state.gov/video for more video and text transcript.
Gender Perspectives in United Nations Peacekeeping Operations
 
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This course strives to educate all interested individuals that want to learn about the conceptual and operational issues involved in integrating a gender perspective in complex peace operations. The course describes in general terms the problems related to gender issues surrounding international modern conflict by exploring how they have evolved through time. The course also addresses how gender balance and gender equality allows women to stop being victimized in the conflict theatre. The course also emphasizes the need for women to have a strategic role at all UN decision-making levels and at the mission level, as well as at government and local levels.
Implementing the ‘Kigali Principles’ for Peacekeeping
 
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Communities expect U.N. peacekeepers to protect them. Currently, 97 percent of uniformed personnel in U.N. peacekeeping operations serve under mandates to protect civilians. The “Kigali Principles on the Protection of Civilians” are a non-binding set of pledges to implement certain best practices in peacekeeping. They were issued at the conclusion of the High-Level International Conference on the Protection of Civilians held in Rwanda on May 28 and 29, 2015. Since then, the Kigali Principles have been referred to and discussed in several meetings including the Leaders’ Summit on Peacekeeping which was convened by President Obama and other world leaders during the 70th United Nations General Assembly. The Principles address the most relevant aspects of peacekeeping, including assessment and planning, force generation, training and equipping personnel, performance and accountability. While they are framed around the protection of civilians, the responsible implementation of the Principles would address much broader challenges that undermine the effectiveness of peacekeeping operations conducted in volatile situations. As signatories of the Kigali Principles, Rwanda, Uruguay, the Netherlands and the United States, in collaboration with the United States Institute of Peace are organizing an event on the Kigali Principles as best practice guidelines for the effective implementation of the POC mandates in U.N. peacekeeping operations. This event aims to familiarize the Washington, D.C. community with the Kigali Principles, and highlight how they might be used to improve the implementation of protection of civilians’ mandates in U.N. peacekeeping operations. Join the conversation on Twitter with #KigaliPrinciples. Learn more about this event: http://www.usip.org/events/implementing-the-kigali-principles-peacekeeping Ambassador Mathilde Mukantabana Republic of Rwanda Ambassador Elbio Rosselli Uruguayan Permanent Representative to the United Nations Deputy Assistant Secretary Tori Holt U.S. Department of State President Nancy Lindborg United States Institute of Peace. Connect with us! Subscribe: https://www.youtube.com/subscription_center?add_user=usinstituteofpeace Twitter: https://twitter.com/USIP Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/usinstituteofpeace/ Instagram: https://www.instagram.com/usipeace/ LinkedIn: https://www.linkedin.com/company/united-states-institute-of-peace Newsletters: http://www.usip.org/sign-usip-updates The United States Institute of Peace works to prevent, mitigate, and resolve violent conflict around the world. USIP does this by engaging directly in conflict zones and by providing analysis, education, and resources to those working for peace. Created by Congress in 1984 as an independent, nonpartisan, federally funded organization, USIP’s more than 300 staff work at the Institute’s D.C. headquarters, and on the ground in the world’s most dangerous regions.
UN peacekeeping operations need to evolve in light of new challenges
 
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The 2017 Chiefs of Defence Conference will take place between 6 - 8 July. The UN peacekeeping chief, Jean-Pierre Lacroix, talks about the importance of the meeting amid new challenges facing peacekeeping.
Views: 967 United Nations
Enhancing Partnerships in Peacekeeping Operations
 
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On Tuesday, April 21st, IPI together with the Permanent Missions of Egypt, Ethiopia, and Italy to the United Nations, cohosted a seminar focusing on the need for increased partnerships in capacity building for conflict prevention and reliable funding support for non-UN peace support operations, as well as the development of their logistical capacity.
Security and rule of law in the field - UN Peacekeeping animation
 
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United Nations, New York, January 2012 - The Office of Rule of Law and Security Institutions, within UN Department of Peackeeping Operations, address security and rule of law issues in post-conflict environments. This 2 minute animation explains their work. You can find out more here http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/issues/ruleoflaw/
Views: 8206 United Nations
Current and Future Challenges of UN Peacekeeping, a Conversation with Hervé Ladsous
 
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“Current and Future Challenges of UN Peacekeeping”, a Conversation with Hervé Ladsous, United Nations Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations. Mr. Ladsous joins UNU Center for Policy Research Director Sebastian von Einsiedel for a conversation examining the current and future challenges for UN peacekeeping, including the ten-fold increase in deployed peacekeeping personnel since 2000, new responsibilities with respect to the protection of civilians, and the tendency of the Security Council to deploy peacekeeping operations to situations with no peace to keep and to equip them with mandates allowing for the use of force. Subscribe for updates on our Conversation Series https://www.youtube.com/user/UNUChannel?sub_confirmation=1 Follow UNU Twitter: https://twitter.com/UNUniversity Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/UnitedNationsUniversity/
Views: 3851 UN University
United Nations peacekeeping | Wikipedia audio article
 
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This is an audio version of the Wikipedia Article: United Nations peacekeeping Listening is a more natural way of learning, when compared to reading. Written language only began at around 3200 BC, but spoken language has existed long ago. Learning by listening is a great way to: - increases imagination and understanding - improves your listening skills - improves your own spoken accent - learn while on the move - reduce eye strain Now learn the vast amount of general knowledge available on Wikipedia through audio (audio article). You could even learn subconsciously by playing the audio while you are sleeping! If you are planning to listen a lot, you could try using a bone conduction headphone, or a standard speaker instead of an earphone. You can find other Wikipedia audio articles too at: https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCuKfABj2eGyjH3ntPxp4YeQ You can upload your own Wikipedia articles through: https://github.com/nodef/wikipedia-tts "The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing." - Socrates SUMMARY ======= Peacekeeping by the United Nations is a role held by the Department of Peacekeeping Operations as "a unique and dynamic instrument developed by the organization as a way to help countries torn by conflict to create the conditions for lasting peace." It is distinguished from peacebuilding, peacemaking, and peace enforcement although the United Nations does acknowledge that all activities are "mutually reinforcing" and that overlap between them is frequent in practice.Peacekeepers monitor and observe peace processes in post-conflict areas and assist ex-combatants in implementing the peace agreements they may have signed. Such assistance comes in many forms, including confidence-building measures, power-sharing arrangements, electoral support, strengthening the rule of law, and economic and social development. Accordingly, UN peacekeepers (often referred to as Blue Berets or Blue Helmets because of their light blue berets or helmets) can include soldiers, police officers, and civilian personnel. The United Nations Charter gives the United Nations Security Council the power and responsibility to take collective action to maintain international peace and security. For this reason, the international community usually looks to the Security Council to authorize peacekeeping operations through Chapter VII authorizations.Most of these operations are established and implemented by the United Nations itself, with troops serving under UN operational control. In these cases, peacekeepers remain members of their respective armed forces, and do not constitute an independent "UN army," as the UN does not have such a force. In cases where direct UN involvement is not considered appropriate or feasible, the Council authorizes regional organizations such as the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), the Economic Community of West African States, or coalitions of willing countries to undertake peacekeeping or peace-enforcement tasks. Mr. Jean-Pierre Lacroix is the Head of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations. He took over from the former Under-Secretary-General Mr. Hérve Ladsous on 1 April 2017. DPKO's highest level doctrine document, entitled "United Nations Peacekeeping Operations: Principles and Guidelines" was issued in 2008.
Views: 5 wikipedia tts
UN panel recommends changes to peacekeeping operations
 
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A UN panel has recommended a number of changes to the organisation's peacekeeping operations. It includes the creation of a bridging quick reaction force that will better enable the Security Council to respond effectively to developing crises. The report calls for greater preventive action, the restructuring of the UN's management structures and the implementation of the stated 'zero tolerance' for sexual abuse by UN staff in the field....http://owl.li/OqtqB For more News visit: http://www.sabc.co.za/news Follow us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/SABCNewsOnline?lang=en Like us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/SABCNewsOnline
Views: 62 SABC Digital News
UN panel recommends sweeping changes to peacekeeping operations
 
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A United Nations panel is recommending sweeping changes be made to peacekeeping missions. It says peacekeeping forces face chronic challenges. A lack of leadership, taking too long to deploy and not enough resources were all cited as problems. Al Jazeera's diplomatic editor, James Bays, reports from Geneva.
Views: 543 Al Jazeera English
Head of UN Peacekeeping in Lebanon
 
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Visiting the Middle-East, the Under-Secretary-General for UN peacekeeping operations, Jean-Pierre Lacroix praised the work of his colleagues of UNIFIL in South Lebanon and the collaboration with Lebanese authorities.
Views: 397 United Nations
Renata Dwan - Peace Building in a Divided World: What is the Role of UN Peacekeeping?
 
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About the Speech: Peacekeeping operations are one of the most visible symbols of the United Nations and to many around the world, peacekeepers are the face of the Organisation. Despite - or perhaps because of - this, questions about the scope and the impact of UN peacekeeping in ending conflict continue to grow. In her speech, Dr. Dwan answered questions about the role of UN peacekeeping and how should success be measured? About the Speaker: Dr Renata Dwan is Chief of the Policy and Best Practices Service in the United Nations’ Departments of Peacekeeping Operations and Field Support. She previously led the team to implement Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon’s initiative on peace operations, the High-level Panel on Peace Operations. While at UN Headquarters, she has worked on policy areas such as security sector reform, economic governance initiatives and partnerships with regional organisations, and has served in UN peace operations in Syria, Afghanistan, Democratic Republic of Congo and in Haiti.
Views: 797 IIEA1
Major General Kristin Lund on Women in peacekeeping - Security Council Briefing
 
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Briefing by Major General Kristin Lund, first female Force Commander and currently Head of Mission and Chief of Staff at the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization (UNTSO) on United Nations peacekeeping operations: Women in peacekeeping at the 8508th meeting of the Security Council.
Views: 441 United Nations
Current Challenges in UN Peacekeeping
 
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Jane Holl Lute, U.N. Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping. Description: Dr. Jane Holl Lute is the United Nations Assistant Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations. She has extensive operational experience with peacekeeping both at the UN and on the staff of the U.S. National Security Council, which she combines with an analytical perspective honed as the head of the Carnegie Commission on Preventing Deadly Conflict. She holds a Ph.D. from Stanford and a J.D. from Georgetown. In this presentation, she discussed "Current Challenges in UN Peacekeeping." Introduction by Alan J. Kuperman, LBJ School of Public Affairs. (Jan 24, 2007 at the University of Texas at Austin, LBJ School of Public Affairs)
Views: 821 UChannel
#70Posts70DaysUN70 - BLUE HELMET PEACEKEEPER
 
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#70Posts70DaysUN70 #UN #Peacekeepers provide #security and the #political and #peacebuilding #support to #help #countries make the difficult, early #transition from #conflict to #peace. 1. Peacekeeping was created in 1948 2. UN Peacekeeping maintains three basic #principles #Consent of the parties Impartiality Non-use of #Force except in #self-defense and defense of the mandate 3. Since its inception, 69 Peacekeeping #Operations have been #deployed by the UN 4. There are currently 17 UN peace #operations deployed on four #continents 5. UN Peacekeepers are from #diverse backgrounds, from areas all around the world to protect #civilians of a country not their own 6. 30% of UN Peacekeepers are #women 7. UN Peacekeeping Force won the #Nobel Peace Prize in 1988 8. The UN has over 100,000 peacekeepers on the ground. In places others can't or won't go. Doing what others can't or won't do. PEACE LIKE #WAR MUST BE #WAGEd
Views: 73 Jennipha
Are traditional peacekeeping missions a thing of the past?
 
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Retired Major-General David Fraser says 'the risks are going to be significant' for whatever mission Canadians peacekeepers are sent on. Subscribe to CTV News to watch more videos: https://www.youtube.com/ctvnews Connect with CTV News: For the latest news visit: http://www.ctvnews.ca/ For a full video offering visit the CTV News Network: http://www.ctvnews.ca/video CTV News on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/CTVNews CTV News on Twitter: https://twitter.com/CTVNews Watch CTV News on Twitter: https://twitter.com/WatchCTVNews CTV News on Google+: https://plus.google.com/+CTVNews/posts CTV News on Instagram: https://instagram.com/ctvnews/ CTV News on Pinterest: https://www.pinterest.com/ctvnews --- CTV News is Canada's most-watched news organization both locally and nationally, and has a network of national, international, and local news operations.
Views: 991 CTV News
U.N.'s Hervé Ladsous discusses peacekeeping operations
 
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CCTV's Liling Tan interviewed Herve Ladsous, the head of the U.N. Peacekeeping Operations program about how member states and missions function to maintain international peace and security.
Views: 386 CGTN America
Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations, Hervé Ladsous, arrives in Bangui
 
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Bangui, September 5, 2015 - Under Secretary-General for United Nations peacekeeping operations, Herve Ladsous, arrived in Bangui, Central African Republic (CAR), the September 5, 2015 for a four-day visit. This trip, the fourth in 2015, aims to reaffirm the United Nations support to the Central African Republic through MINUSCA, the integrated multidimensional United Nations Mission for Stabilization in Central African Republic. This visit will also aim to mobilize the civilian and military personnel around the fight against sexual exploitation and abuse. Upon his arrival in Bangui, USG-Herve Ladsous will meet with MINUSCA Senior management led by MINUSCA acting Special Representative of the Secretary General, Parfait Onanga-Anyanga, UN military and police forces and Published on Sep 5, 2015 Bangui, September 5, 2015 - Under Secretary-General for United Nations peacekeeping operations, Herve Ladsous, arrived in Bangui, Central African Republic (CAR), the September 5, 2015 for a four-day visit. This trip, the fourth in 2015, aims to reaffirm the United Nations support to the Central African Republic through MINUSCA, the integrated multidimensional United Nations Mission for Stabilization in Central African Republic. This visit will also aim to mobilize the civilian and military personnel around the fight against sexual exploitation and abuse. Upon his arrival in Bangui, USG-Herve Ladsous will meet with MINUSCA Senior management led by MINUSCA acting Special Representative of the Secretary General, Parfait Onanga-Anyanga, UN military personnel and UN police. Ladsous is also scheduled to meet with government interim authorities, the National Authority of the elections and the international community. After his visit, Hervé Ladsous will hold a press conference Tuesday, September 8, 2015 at 11:00 at the headquarters of minusca. Ladsous is also scheduled to meet with government interim authorities, the National Authority of the elections and the international community. After his visit, Hervé Ladsous will hold a press conference Tuesday, September 8, 2015 at 11:00 at the headquarters of minusca.
Huge challenges in Peacekeeping Operations (Alain Le Roy)
 
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United Nations, New York, 20 May 2009 - Alain Le Roy, Under-Secretary-General for Peacekeeping Operations briefed the press on the latest developments and challenges in peacekeeping. View the entire Press Conference (Real Media, 1 hour): http://webcast.un.org/ramgen/ondemand/pressbriefing/2009/brief090520.rm
Views: 1890 United Nations
Peace Operations 2025
 
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On February 19th, IPI and ZIF co-hosted the launch of Peace Operations 2025, which aims to help policymakers and practitioners to structure their thinking about the future of peace operations and to identify alternatives for action. The discussion will include remarks from the following: H.E. Mr. Hervé Ladsous Under-Secretary-General for UN Peacekeeping Operations Ambassador Miguel Berger Deputy Permanent Representative of Germany to the UN Dr. Almut Wieland-Karimi Director of the Center for International Peace Operations (ZIF)
Talk Africa: Peacekeeping missions in Africa
 
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On focus, we explore the successes and failures of peace keeping missions in Africa.
Views: 2068 CGTN Africa
Peace Support Operations in Africa - Amb. Roger A. Meece
 
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Discussing the modern United Nations (U.N.) and African Union peacekeeping operations environment, Ambassador Roger A. Meece, former head of the U.N. Stabilization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUSCO), suggested that peace operations need to integrate traditional peacekeeping with peace enforcement and peacebuilding if ongoing integrated peace missions on the continent are to be successful. He was speaking to a group of 60 senior African military and civilian leaders from 40 African nations attending the Next Generation of African Security Sector Leaders Program hosted by the Africa Center for Strategic Studies (ACSS), October 21 to November 8, 2013, in Alexandria, Virginia, outside of Washington, D.C. "My experience in MONUSCO, which has established a Force Intervention Brigade (FIB), suggests that peace enforcement is an essential tool, among many, that is required to achieve crucial mission objectives," Ambassador Meece noted. The former U.N. official cautioned participants about the danger of compartmentalizing the different dimensions of peace support operations. He argued that the traditional approach to peace operations, which views peacekeeping as an activity that eventually transitions to peacebuilding, is fundamentally flawed because it ignores the complex nature of conflicts. To emphasize this point, he explained the evolution of U.N. peacekeeping doctrine from the early 1960s to the present period.